Greenhouse vegetables have high multiple cropping index, high yield and large Fertilizer demand. The base fertilizer has a great influence on the yield, quality and soil properties of vegetables. It is the most basic link in fertilization and is essential for the growth and development of vegetable crops. The following three aspects should be noted when applying the base fertilizer.
First, determine the amount of fertilizer based on the target yield of vegetables. To determine the amount of fertilizer applied to the greenhouse, it is necessary to consider the soil fertility and the amount of fertilizer required for vegetables. Generally 30% of the total nitrogen fertilizer, 80% of the Phosphate Fertilizer, and 50% of the potassium fertilizer are used as the base fertilizer, and the biological fertilizer and the micro-fertilizer are all applied as much as possible. For example, the yield of autumn èŒ¬ tomato is generally between 8,000 and 9000 kg. In this production range, for each 1000 kg of tomato produced, it needs to absorb 4.4 kg of nitrogen, 1.1 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, 4.8 kg of potassium oxide, and the ratio of NPK is 1:0.25:1.1. More calcium and boron are needed. Among them, the high-Phosphorus Fertilizer should be selected as the base fertilizer, and the low-phosphorus fertilizer should be used as the top dressing. The amount of base fertilizer is 40-50 kg, the ratio of NPK is 1:1:0.75; the application rate is 75-85 kg, and the ratio of NPK is 1:0.2:0.85.
Second, ensure that the amount of organic fertilizer is sufficient. Organic fertilizers (including farmyard manure, manure and cake fertilizer) are most suitable for base fertilizer application. For old greenhouses with high soil fertility, more attention should be paid to the application of some bio-organic fertilizers as base fertilizer. To maintain soil fertility and organic matter in the shed without reducing or slightly increasing, organic fertilizer must be added to the greenhouse soil. According to the change law of soil organic matter in greenhouse and the ratio of organic nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen is 1:0.4-1, the highest yield is calculated. It is necessary to maintain the soil organic matter in greenhouses above 2.0% to ensure high yield, and organic matter should be applied every year. The organic fertilizer with a content of 30% is not less than 2000 kg/mu. If the soil organic matter content in greenhouses is to be increased year by year, the total amount of 30% organic fertilizer applied per year should exceed 2000 kg.
3. Determine the method of applying the base fertilizer according to the weather and growth characteristics. When applying the base fertilizer, it is mainly based on large-volume crude organic fertilizer such as decomposed soil and manure, manure, and 8 to 12 cubic meters per mu to increase soil organic matter and carbon materials, and a small amount of high-quality bio-organic fertilizer (general dosage) 100 ~ 150 kg) and slow release type Potassium Sulfate compound fertilizer 75 ~ 100 kg. Controlled release fertilizer is used to regulate the release rate of nitrogen fertilizer in the base fertilizer, to avoid the occurrence of high temperature and prevent root diseases. After fruit setting, the whole element fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be applied with water.
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