It is understood that the core content of the "Guidelines" is to require chemical design units to conduct process hazard source analysis during the design of the project. Why does the State Administration of Work Safety require chemical design units to design in accordance with the Guidelines? How to conduct process hazard analysis? With a series of questions, the reporter interviewed relevant industry experts responsible for the preparation of the "Guidelines".
Guarantee chemical project "eugenics and superior education"
Chen Yuying, consultant of China Petroleum and Chemical Exploration and Design Association, told the reporter that in 2007, the State Administration of Work Safety commissioned the China Petroleum and Chemical Survey and Design Association and the China Chemical Safety Association to jointly organize the "Guidelines." After more than two years of writing and multiple review and revision, on May 1, 2011, the guidelines were officially implemented. So far, the "Guidelines" has become the industry standard for the first safety design in China's petroleum and chemical industry.
Talking about the background of the "Guidelines", Chen Yuying interpreted it from three aspects:
First of all, in recent years, several major accidents involving chemical installations, crude oil and chemical storage tank fire explosions have occurred in petroleum and chemical enterprises in Jilin, Nanjing, Lanzhou and Dalian. It is found through analysis that although most of the reasons are production management and operation. It was caused by improperness, but at the same time, it was found that many defects in the initial design stage of the project led to many safety hazards in production and operation in the future. For example, the current design specifications and standards are lagging or missing, the overall planning layout is not perfect, the design change management is arbitrarily large, the design unit level is uneven, the safety design is flawed, and the safety design management has a blind spot. Therefore, further standardization of safety design is imminent. "If the project is not 'eugenic', then it will be difficult to achieve 'excellent education' after the completion of the project." Chen Yuying said.
â€œThe State Administration of Work Safety has also found that it is not enough to focus on production safety and not to design safety. If the design of the design itself has a large number of dangerous sources, it is very difficult for the workers and technicians of the production enterprises to solve it. After the design is completed, it is too late to grasp the safety. It is necessary to start from the source and move the safety work forward to prevent the unsafe factors in the previous design as much as possible. This is also the key point of the intrinsic safety design review! Said. To this end, the leaders of the State Administration of Work Safety have clearly pointed out in recent speeches that in order to focus on intrinsic safety, it is necessary to formulate a safety design standard for chemical construction projects suitable for China's national conditions as soon as possible to regulate the safety design of chemical projects. .
Secondly, in recent years, domestic design units have paid great attention to corporate brand building, and have generally carried out quality management system (GB/T19001-ISO9001) certification and health and safety, environment, management system (GB/T24001-GB/T28001) certification, but quality management. The system does not introduce the theory of security risk analysis; health, safety, environment, and management systems are aimed at occupational health and safety, not product and service security. Therefore, the quality management system and health and safety, environment, and management systems cannot replace process safety design.
Thirdly, foreign engineering companies attach great importance to safety design. They have established a scientific system of chemical process safety design systems and introduced techniques and methods for process hazard source analysis. Chen Yuying told reporters that â€œthe identification and review of hazard sources abroad is the basis and practice of chemical safety design. By contrast, our safety design procedures and methods are backward, and we generally design according to the designerâ€™s personal experience, and almost no process danger. Source analysis does not do security design review. In addition, although there are standards in China, our standards are updated too slowly, the number is not enough, and the implementation is not strict, it is easy to cause security risks."
Process hazard analysis is the core of safety
Professor Gao Jinji, director of the National Basic Research Laboratory for Fault Prevention and Monitoring of Hazardous Chemical Production Systems, pointed out that in today's modern science and technology development, finding problems is more important than solving problems. Violation of regulations and human error are of course an important cause of accidents. However, for the production of hazardous chemicals, the process can analyze the operation of the process and equipment in advance, identify possible hazards, and take corresponding measures for the existing hazards. For example, modifying the design and adding safety measures will greatly improve the safety of the system and process.
Gao Jinji also gave an example: "Everyone knows that in the operation of the reactor, the order of reversal due to inadvertent operation can easily lead to malfunction or danger. Through the process of dangerous source analysis, it can be installed in the operation of the reactor. A program control, if the previous operation is not carried out, the subsequent operations cannot be performed. The accident hazard is neglected in the safety design."
What is the process hazard analysis? â€œProcess hazard source analysis is an organized, systematic safety design review that identifies process hazards and analyzes their causes and consequences. The results of the review will correct or improve project safety design and improvement for designers. The safety design level of the construction project provides the basis for decision-making. In layman's terms, the process hazard source analysis is actually a systematic and organized risk analysis activity. The current â€œGuidelinesâ€ implement the process hazard source analysis and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The principle of demand is the same, and we are also in line with international standards.â€ Shu Xiaoqin, a security expert at Chinaâ€™s Ryukyu Engineering Company, who participated in the â€œGuidelinesâ€, told reporters.
Shu Xiaoqin further explained that the process hazard source analysis covers three stages: preliminary work, basic engineering design and detailed engineering design. Among them, the analysis of hazard source in the preliminary work process mainly includes the process package design, concept (plan) design before the project establishment, the overall design of the extra large project, and the site selection, safety condition demonstration and feasibility study report preparation stage carried out by the owner's commissioned design unit. Process hazard source analysis performed. It is the best time to implement an intrinsically safe design.
â€œWhen we were doing some projects in Taizhou, we found that Shell owners were very concerned about the process hazard analysis because it involved a series of issues such as site selection, land acquisition, and the safety distance of 1 km or 500 m in the future. If the pre-work is done well, it can effectively identify the source of danger and avoid the waste of late investment.â€ Shu Xiaoqin said that in foreign countries, the feasibility study report of the engineering company often lasts for 3 to 4 years. Compared with foreign countries, we have not done enough to analyze the danger sources in the preliminary work.
Chen Yuying also said that in foreign countries, designers pay great attention to process hazard analysis. At present, the domestic situation is that several petrochemical design institutes such as China Ryukyu Engineering Co., Ltd. and Sinopec Engineering Construction Co., Ltd. have already started this work, but most of the design institutes, especially the hundreds of small and medium-sized design institutes in China, have not yet Do, some design institutes have not even heard of the term "process hazard source analysis".
â€œIn the past, the design unit was not designed without considering safety issues. For example, the â€œSafety Specialâ€ written by the design unit and the â€œLabor Health Specialâ€ can also be regarded as a process hazard analysis, but it is not systematic. Moreover, it only lists the things of each profession, does not emphasize the method, and is not practical. In foreign countries, the process hazard source analysis at different stages needs to form different groups. The team members cover the designers, owners, and contractors. The construction side needs all parties to participate, and it must be coordinated with the design progress." Chen Yuying told reporters.
The design unit should fill in the short board as soon as possible
The mere completion of the preparation of the "Guidelines" is only the first step, and the next step is to help the design unit to implement it. Chen Yuying said that according to the "Safety Supervision and Management Measures for Dangerous Chemicals Construction Projects", the design unit should design the safety facilities of the construction project in accordance with the "Guidelines" and prepare a special design for the safety facilities of the construction project. The design unit was unable to pass the review. Therefore, as soon as you master the "Guidelines", the schedule is mentioned.
Chen Yuying told reporters that a key work of the China Petroleum and Chemical Survey and Design Association this year is to implement the "Guidelines." To this end, the association is tentatively scheduled to hold three training sessions in August, September and October this year. Experts from the domestic design institutes specializing in safety should focus on process hazard analysis, project safety design planning, project safety design. The training was carried out in a series of key points such as the review.
As a writer of the "Guidelines" and a security expert of China's Ryukyu Engineering Co., Shu Xiaoqin believes that design units should fully recognize the importance of safety design and fill in the shortcomings of the security field as soon as possible. She believes that the design unit should pay attention to the following two issues.
The first is to truly establish a sense of security. Shu Xiaoqin pointed out that some design institutes are still not very aware of the intrinsic safety, and they are not very aware of the importance of the Guidelines. They are not very concerned. Although there are a lot of things about safety, the specific design often doesn't know how to cut in. It feels like the design is not very helpful. Since some small and medium-sized design institutes in China do not undertake many projects, the requirements for safety are not very strict.
"In fact, foreign engineering companies and owners are not voluntarily doing process hazard analysis from the beginning, because safety requires labor and material resources." Shu Xiaoqin pointed out that the reason why they are so safe now is that The lessons learned, on the other hand, are due to the high insurance premiums required by foreign insurance systems that require high-risk projects, which will bring significant costs to the company. If we do a good job of security, we will also achieve balance of payments, and we will gain a lot in terms of word of mouth and reputation. Foreign engineering companies are very concerned about the company's social image and social responsibility. In addition, after many years of development, many chemical processes have matured in technology, and it is difficult to have a greater degree of innovation. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of safety and environmental protection, and it is better to show the process. Advanced and innovative.
The second is to make good use of the Guide. Some design units are still not in place in the analysis of process hazard sources, and the â€œSafety Supervision and Management Measures for Dangerous Chemicals Construction Projectsâ€ requires that this part be written into a special article to reflect that the design unit is based on the â€œGuidelinesâ€. "The analysis of the process hazard source, thus reflecting the use of the guide. The difficulty of small and medium-sized design institutes is that they do not know how to combine their design and safety.
â€œAlthough we started more than 20 years later than engineering companies in developed countries, we donâ€™t do it at all, but itâ€™s often not so systematic and disorganized. Now the â€œGuidelinesâ€ are Help design units strengthen safety design management, implement process hazard source analysis, safety design review, plan and arrange a series of activities, and help design designers, owners and construction units to better understand the problems we face through systematic risk analysis. Danger, what measures should we take to circumvent these risks? These activities are inseparable from the design. In one sentence, the "Guidelines" should be fully utilized to help design units better design." Shu Xiaoqin said.
Shu Xiaoqin also said that from the experience of China Ryukyu Engineering Co., Ltd., after more than 10 years of development, the project manager has experienced a long time from the beginning of the incomprehension and non-support to the current initiative. Therefore, the small and medium-sized design institutes will have such an understanding process in the implementation process. In the past, the country did not require it, but now it has the "Safety Supervision and Management Measures for Dangerous Chemicals Construction Projects" and the "Guidelines" as a guarantee. The difficulty of implementation is not as difficult as it was at the beginning.
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