In recent years, road dangerous goods transportation accidents have occurred frequently, and in the event of an accident, the impact is often very bad. Therefore, it is especially important for practitioners to understand the emergency response measures in the event of an accident. The author has worked in the chemical industry for many years, and has accumulated some practical methods for emergency handling of dangerous goods transportation accidents for the reference of relevant units.
The method of extinguishing the fire is cooled by water to achieve the purpose of extinguishing the fire, but the suffocation method or the isolation method cannot be adopted. It is forbidden to use sand to cover the burning explosives, otherwise it will turn from burning to explosion. Firefighters should wear gas masks when fighting toxic explosives.
Explosives spill spill treatment thereof, should be wet with water, sprinkle in the sawdust or other soft items collected batt, remains fairly humidity, firefighters submitted to treatment, and definitely not spill was re-collected into the original packaging Inside.
Compressed gas and liquefied gas
The fire extinguishing method quickly moves the unfired gas cylinder to a safe place; the gas cylinder that has been ignited is sprayed with a large amount of misty water; when the fire is not large, it can be extinguished with a fire extinguisher such as carbon dioxide, dry powder or foam.
Leakage treatment When the gas cylinder is leaking during transportation, especially toxic gas, the cylinder should be quickly moved to a safe place, and the corresponding protection should be done according to the nature of the gas. The person stands at the upwind and tightens the valve. Most toxic gases can be dissolved in water. In an emergency, use a towel soaked in water to cover the nose and mouth. If it cannot be stopped, push the cylinder into the water and notify the relevant department in time.
Extinguishing methods The most effective way to eliminate flammable liquid fires is to use fire extinguishers such as foam, carbon dioxide and dry powder.
Disposal treatment After timely adsorption with sand or soft material, concentrate on the open space for disposal. When covering, pay attention to prevent liquid from flowing into places such as sewers and rivers to prevent pollution.
Flammable solids, pyrophoric items and wet combustibles
Fire extinguishing method According to the different properties of flammable solids, water, sand, foam, carbon dioxide and dry powder fire extinguishing agent can be used to extinguish the fire, but it must be noted that the flammable solids reacted with water should not be saved with water, such as aluminum powder, titanium powder and other metal powder. Use dry sand and dry powder fire extinguishers for fire fighting; flammable solids with explosion hazard such as nitro compounds to inhibit sand grit; flammable solids such as phosphorus compounds and nitro compounds that produce highly toxic gases in water or acid ( Including nitrocellulose, nitrogen compounds, sulfur, etc., burning toxic and irritating gases, it is strictly prohibited to use nitrate, foam fire extinguishing agent to save, you must pay attention to wearing gas masks when fighting; red phosphorus will be converted to yellow phosphorus at high temperatures, Become a self-igniting item and be cautious when handling it.
When extinguishing fires from self-igniting items, be aware that when such items are extinguished, it is generally possible to use dry powder, sand (except for self-igniting items that are explosive when dry) and carbon dioxide fire extinguishing agents. Items that react with water can be banned from water, such as triethyl aluminum or aluminum-iron solvent; yellow phosphorus is temporarily extinguished after being extinguished by water, and residual yellow phosphorus will spontaneously ignite after water volatilization, so there should be close observation by the person at the scene. At the same time, you should wear protective clothing and a gas mask when fighting.
When extinguishing wet and flammable materials, it should also be noted that when such items are involved in a fire, the unburned items should be quickly evacuated from the fire site or effectively separated from the burning materials, and dried with dry sand or dry powder; reacted with acid or oxidant. Substance, banned acid and alkali and foam fire extinguishing agent; lively metal banned carbon dioxide fire extinguisher for saving, using soda, salt, nitrogen or graphite powder to save; lithium fire can only be saved with graphite powder.
Disposal When the above three types of goods are leaked, they can be collected and packaged separately. The collected residue cannot be discharged or discarded. Water can not be treated when it is treated with water, but the site after cleaning can be washed with a large amount of water.
Oxidants and organic peroxides
Extinguishing methods Organic peroxides and metal peroxides can only be used with sand, dry powder and carbon dioxide fire extinguishing agents; gas masks should be worn when fighting.
Spill handling during loading and unloading, due to poor or improper packaging operations, resulting in oxidant spill, gently sweep up, packaged separately, but not with the car shipped, must remain in a safe place, a small amount of spill or residual oxidant Things should be cleaned.
Toxic and infectious materials
Fire-fighting methods should be used to extinguish poisons and infectious materials. When fires occur in cyanide, do not use acid-base fire extinguishers to save them. Use water and sand to save them. Fire extinguishers should put out corresponding fires according to their nature. method. When you save, stand in the upper direction as much as possible and wear a gas mask.
Disposal treatment Solid poisons and infectious materials can be put into containers after sweeping; liquid poisons and infectious materials are infiltrated with soft materials such as cotton wool and sawdust, collected after adsorption, and placed in containers.
Extinguishing methods When inorganic corrosives or organic corrosives are directly burned, in addition to substances that react with water, a large amount of water can be used to save. However, it is advisable to use misty water. It is not possible to spray the articles directly with high-pressure water column, so as to prevent the splashed water droplets from carrying corrosives and burning fire-fighting personnel.
Disposal treatment Liquid corrosion products should be absorbed by dry sand and dry soil, cleaned, and then washed with water. When a large amount of overflow occurs, it can be neutralized with a dilute acid or a dilute alkali. When neutralizing, it is necessary to prevent violent reactions. When washing the leaking site with water, it can only be slowly washed or sprayed with misty water to splash people with water-resistant beads.
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