Most unconventional protein feed ingredients have anti-nutritional factors or toxins that must be properly treated before they can be used. Most of them are by-products of legume seed processing. The product quality and nutritional value are greatly affected by the processing technology, especially the amino acid digestibility and availability. Amino acid imbalance or lack of certain limiting amino acids, when replacing the soybean meal in the diet, pay attention to the supplement of amino acids. Generally poor palatability, pay attention to processing modulation.
First, cottonseed meal
1, the composition characteristics of cottonseed meal
The nutritional value of cottonseed meal is affected by the fat content of gossypol and cyclopropene. The fiber content varies with the degree of shelling. There are few lysines in the amino acid, which is the first limiting amino acid, and the utilization rate is also poor. The content of free gossypol is small, and the utilization of crude protein and lysine is better. It is an excellent source of tryptophan and methionine, and its utilization rate is better than that of rapeseed. Less vitamin A and D. There are many phosphorus in minerals, and less calcium. Phosphorus is mostly phytate phosphorus, accounting for 71%.
2, the use of cottonseed meal
For pigs, high quality cottonseed meal can replace half of soybean meal without adverse effects, but it should make up lysine; if the quality is not good or the substitution amount is too high, it will affect palatability and poisoning. Cottonseed meal with a free gossypol content of more than 0.04% must be used with caution. The instability of the product and the toxicity of gossypol are generally not recommended for suckling pigs and piglets. Breeding animals should avoid using cottonseed meal to avoid affecting fertility.
Second, peanut ç²•
1, the characteristics of peanut meal
Peanut meal is susceptible to mold and produces aflatoxin. The amount of peanut shell mixed has the greatest influence on the composition. Due to the large number of shells, the high-fiber and high-energy feed should be avoided.
2, the composition characteristics of peanut meal
Peanut meal is dominated by water-insoluble globulin (65%), water-soluble albumin only 7%, and protein traits are quite different from soy protein. Lysine and methionine are low, and arginine and histidine are quite high. Fatty acids are mainly oleic acid, accounting for 53% to 78%. In addition to A, D, C, vitamins are rich in other sources. Calcium and phosphorus are mostly, and phosphorus is mostly phytic acid. Peanut meal contains trypsin inhibitor, which is about 20% of raw soybeans and can be removed by heating.
3, the use of peanut meal
The palatability of pigs is quite good, because lysine and energy content are low, its value is lower than soybean meal, and piglets can replace one-third of soybean meal. When the pigs eat too much peanut meal, the meat quality tends to be worse, and the fat is softened, and the dosage is preferably not more than 10%.
Third, shrimp powder, shrimp shell powder, crab powder, crab shell powder
1. Ingredient characteristics
Shrimp powder contains about 40% protein, some of the protein comes from chitin nitrogen, and it is worthless. Most of the shrimp shell powder comes from chitin, and the utilization rate is very poor. The shrimp shell is composed of equal amounts of calcium carbonate and chitin. Calcium carbonate can be used as a calcium source, while chitin is not nutritious. Chitin is a cellulose-like polymer carbohydrate. Because of nitrogen, it is nitrogen. There will be protein components in the analysis, the real protein comes from the body and the internal organs, and the quality is very good. Shrimp powder and shrimp shell powder also contain some fat, contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and are rich in choline, phospholipids, cholesterol and other ingredients. The composition characteristics of crab powder and crab shell powder are the same as shrimp powder and shrimp shell powder.
2, the use of
The use of 5% shrimp powder or crab powder in the growth and finishing pig feed can achieve good results. The effect is much better than meat and bone meal, meat powder, meat, etc., so it can be replaced because of high ash and chitin, low fat, so the energy is low. Attention should be paid to supplementing energy and the balance of calcium and phosphorus.
Fourth, meat powder, meat and bone meal
The meat powder is basically the same as the meat and bone powder. The only difference is the phosphorus content. The meat bone powder is 4.4% or more. The meat powder is hereinafter referred to as meat powder.
1. The compositional characteristics of meat powder and meat and bone meal
Meat and bone meal and meat powder are all protein feed ingredients, and they are also a good source of calcium and phosphorus. The amino acid composition is not good, lysine and tryptophan are insufficient, the utilization rate changes greatly, and it is easy to absorb due to excessive heating. There are more B12 vitamins, more niacin and choline, but less A and D. The amino acid composition of meat and bone meal and meat powder is not easy to grasp, especially for products with high keratin and connective tissue content, the amount of essential amino acids is very low, and the protein value is poor.
2, the use of meat powder and meat and bone meal
With the increase of dosage, the palatability and growth of pig feed decreased, and the quality of meat and bone meal was more obvious. The dosage should not be too high, preferably less than 5%. It is generally used for feed of pigs and pigs, and piglets should be avoided.
In short, as long as the unconventional protein feed can be applied reasonably, it can achieve good economic benefits. If it is used improperly, it may cause serious consequences. Therefore, it must be clarified in order to use it.
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