Aminoglycosides are one of the earliest types of antibiotics developed and marketed by foreign researchers. Their representative product is streptomycin. Since it can effectively inhibit the proliferation of tubercle bacilli, streptomycin soon became available after being marketed in the early 1950s. Become a best-selling product in the international pharmaceutical market.
Following streptomycin and its derivatives, western drug researchers have developed and marketed nearly 20 aminoglycoside antibiotic products, including gentamicin, neomycin, ribomycin, kanamycin, and amicam. Natamycin, Tobramycin, Netilmicin, Zisunsu, Paromomycin, and later Chinese scientists independently developed Minoromycin and etimicin (Adamomycin), etc. Make it the most popular member of the antibiotic family.
Side-effects are impeded However, the side effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics are also worrying, especially the deafness side effects of commonly used species such as streptomycin and gentamicin. Therefore, since the large number of Î²-lactam antibiotics represented by cephalosporins and semi-synthetic penicillins in the 1970s, aminoglycoside antibiotics represented by streptomycin and gentamicin began to decline until the 1990s. At the end, the total sales of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the international antibiotic market accounted for only about 3%, while the Î²-lactam antibiotic products mainly composed of cephalosporins and semi-synthetic penicillins accounted for 80% of the total international antibiotic market sales. Into the left and right.
However, since the 1990s, semi-synthetic erythromycin antibiotics, such as azithromycin, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin, have appeared on the market and have taken away some of the market share of cephalosporins and semi-synthetic penicillins. In the past 10 years, semi-synthetic erythromycin has become a new hot product in the international antibiotics market, which has led to the popular sales of erythromycin cyanide (the main raw material for semi-synthetic erythromycin products). Become the world's largest producer and exporter of erythromycin cyanide APIs, with an annual output of over 10,000 tons.
The good times are not long. Due to the extensive use of beta-lactam antibiotics and semi-synthetic erythromycin products in medical circles in various countries, a large number of clinically resistant strains of bacteria and "super bacteria" have emerged.
There are fewer patients with old medicine or turning over infectious diseases in developed countries, mainly in developing countries. For the sake of interest, pharmaceutical manufacturers in Western countries have a cold attitude towards the development of new antibiotic products. They are also keen to research and develop cardiovascular disease and anti-cancer drugs with a rising trend in patient populations and high treatment costs. Therefore, since the late 1990s, there have been few new antibiotic products on the market by multinational pharmaceutical companies. The antibiotics currently sold on the market are mostly old products developed in the previous half century.
As a result, the medical community regained the aminoglycoside drugs that have been on the market for more than half a century. This is because, although the old aminoglycoside products have side effects such as deafness, but it also has its own advantages: First, for aerobic bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, especially for bird-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter have significant inhibitory effects and are inexpensive compared to currently popular cephalosporins. Second, the number of aminoglycosides is large, so there is more choice for doctors.
In addition, as early as 10 years ago, foreign drug researchers have developed new derivatives of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the laboratory, but they have not yet been marketed for various reasons. These aminoglycoside antibiotic derivatives are new drugs. It is expected to become a sharp weapon against clinically resistant bacteria and even "super bacteria".
New derivatives of aminoglycoside antibiotics include neomycin B (Freund's mycelium), arbekacin, kanamycin B (amino desoxykanamicin), debemycin, and Herceptin , methyl hydrazide and aspirin. Once these new aminoglycoside products are put on the market, they may become new stars in new anti-infective drugs.
There is still room for growth. Currently, in the western medical community, it is widely believed that over the past 40 years, the medical profession has become over-reliant on cephalosporins and semi-synthetic penicillin drugs; by the late 1990s, it relied excessively on semi-synthetic erythromycin antibiotics and neglected. The use of other antibiotics has led to the proliferation of bacterial resistance. Some researchers believe that the clinical research work on the aminoglycoside antibiotic products with as many as one or twenty varieties is not extensive. Because some aminoglycosides have ototoxicity, all of them were put into the â€œcold houseâ€ for decades. incorrect. At least so far, many aminoglycosides have been found to be effective against multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms, and it is not the medical community's belief that aminoglycoside antibiotics are only effective against gram-negative bacteria. Later microbiological studies also found that aminoglycosides also have inhibitory effects on gram-positive bacteria. For example, clinical common endocarditis (usually caused by gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococcal infections) is not as effective as the above-mentioned Î²-lactam antibiotics alone, and amikacin is added to the prescription. Amikacin) is more effective. This is one of the newest examples of new use of aminoglycosides.
The new uses of aminoglycoside antibiotics go far beyond these. Foreign researchers found that certain aminoglycosides also have an "antisense" effect, that is, interfere with the abnormal synthesis of human DNA. For example, fibrocysts are a rare disease. Clinical studies have found that the disease is caused by a deficiency in the patient's genes and that few drugs currently cure the disease. However, the researchers found that one of the aminoglycosides, Gentamicin, which has been on the market for nearly half a century, can effectively treat fibrocysts, interfere with the abnormal synthesis of RNA and return it to normal sequence.
There are many such reports, including the treatment of endothelial cell microbial infections, such as rickettsial infection, clothing, etc., especially for the treatment of anthrax, new aminoglycosides have very good efficacy. Prior to this, the medical community generally used ciprofloxacin and tetracycline drugs for the treatment of anthrax.
European Global Information Corporation chief expert believes that today's new antibiotic research and development gap, aminoglycoside antibiotics are expected to become a popular species in the international anti-infective drug market, its market growth is huge.
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